The Department of Renal Sciences at Vimhans Nayati Super Speciality Hospital offers highly advanced and reliable options for the diagnosis, assessment, treatment and management of kidney stones. Also known as renal calculi, kidney stones are solid deposits of minerals and salts that accumulated in the kidneys and are a result of unhealthy dietary habits, excess body weight, underlying medical conditions, intake of certain supplements and medication, etc. The size of the stone varies from tiny sand-like granules to as big as a golf ball. Kidney stones can affect any part of the urinary tract and even your bladder. While smaller stones may pass out on their own, the removal of larger ones may require proper medical intervention. Though kidney stones can be quite painful, these do not cause any serious complication if treated and managed early.
Symptoms associated with kidney stones
It is important to understand that you are not likely to experience any symptoms until the stones move into your uterus, which are the long pair of tubes connecting the kidneys to the urinary bladder. While the small stones will easily pass into the bladder, larger ones can get stuck causing an obstruction. The associated symptoms include:
- Severe, pulsating pain in the lower back
- Pain that radiates towards the abdomen
- Pain that worsens with time
- Experiencing discomfort and burning sensation during urination
- Dark-colored urine
- Traces of blood in the urine
- Pungent smelling urine
- Foamy urine
- Feeling nauseated
- Persistent urge to urinate
- Fever accompanied by cold sweats and chills.
What causes kidney stones?
Kidney stones are not the result of a definite factor and there are multiple factors that can cause the. Depending upon these, kidney stones can be broadly classified into the following types:
- Calcium oxalate stones are a result of low citrate and high calcium, oxalate, or uric acid levels in the urine.
- Calcium phosphate stones are the result of a dysfunctional urinary system
- Struvite stones are usually the result of urinary tract infections
- Uric acid stones are a result of dehydration
- Cystine stones are the result of a genetic disorder called cystinuria
Factors that increase the risks of kidney stones
Several factors that can increase your risks of developing kidney stones include:
- Family or personal history of kidney stones
- Insufficient water intake often resulting in dehydration
- Taking foods with excess sugar and salt
- High BMI i.e. being obese
- An underlying disease of the digestive system or undergoing surgery for the same
- Other existing medical ailments like renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism and repeated urinary tract infections
Cutting edge diagnostic procedures offered
State of the art diagnostic procedures offered at Vimhans Nayati include:
- Blood tests to determine the levels of calcium and uric acid in your blood
- Urine tests to check if you are excreting excess amounts of stone-forming minerals. For this, you will be required to give urine samples for two consecutive days.
- Imaging tests like computerized tomography (CT) scan and ultrasound to reveal and detect the stones, even the tiniest ones. Other imaging options are also available
- Analysis of passed stones is also offered to figure out the composition of the stones and analyse them to figure out what actually is causing the problem.
Treatment options offered at Vimhans Nayati
At Vimhans Nayati, we offer comprehensive treatment options based on proper diagnosis and evaluation. In the case of smaller stones, we usually recommend medication and lifestyle changes. Pain relievers are prescribed to help with the discomfort. You might also be given medicines like alpha-blockers to relax your muscles and help you pass your kidney stones without any pain.
In order to treat larger stones, the following treatment options are offered:
- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) – It uses shock waves, that are created using soundwaves, to target and break the stones into tiny particles that can be easily passed out along with urine. The procedure may take about 45 minutes to an hour and you might feel slight pressure and discomfort for which anaesthesia may be recommended.
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy–It refers to the surgical removal of stones using a small telescope and other special instruments that are introduced inside the body via very small incisions, made on the patient’s back. The procedure is carried out under the influence of general anaesthesia.
- Stone removal using ureteroscope –The procedure involves the use of a special lighted tube, known as a ureteroscope, to remove smaller stones in order to relieve swelling, pain and inflammation. The procedure is non-invasive as the tube is inserted via the urethra. The patient may be given general or local anaesthesia before initiating the procedure.