Centre of Excellence for Neurosciences at Vimhans Nayati Super Speciality Hospital provides state-of-the-art facilities for the treatment of various types of Brain Tumors. Brain Tumor refers to the mass or lump that develops in the brain as a result of the uncontrollable multiplication of abnormal cells and tissues which get accumulated over time. With an incidence of 5 to 10 cases per 1,00,000 population in India, brain tumours affect both adults as well as children. Depending upon the nature of the cells i.e., whether they are cancerous or non-cancerous, brain tumours can be broadly classified into two categories – Benign Brain Tumors and Malignant Brain Tumors.
- Benign Brain Tumor – Being non-cancerous in nature these tend to stay at the site of origin and do not metastasize to other areas. If the tumor is small, it does not pose any serious threat to the patient; however, larger tumors can compress brain tissue and lead to complications that can be easily avoided with the help of surgery. Benign tumors are easily removable in the majority of cases and do not usually recur after removal
- Malignant brain tumours – Usually classed as grade 3 and grade 4 tumours, malignant brain tumours are quite aggressive in nature and progress very rapidly. These can either be primary or secondary. Primary brain tumours are the ones that originate in the brain itself whereas secondary brain tumours are those that have originated in some other organ of the body and spread to the brain metastatically.
Symptoms that might be an indication of brain tumour
Symptoms associated with brain tumour vary greatly depending upon various factors that include the type of tumour, its size, location, and progress rate. Some of the general symptoms associated with brain tumours include:
- Frequent onsets of headache
- Changing pattern of headaches or headaches that become adverse over time
- Feeling nauseated without any reason
- Evident problems with vision like blurring or partial loss of vision
- Gradual loss of sensation and movement in the limbs
- Problems with balance
- Hearing defects and speech difficulty
- Confusion and chaos
- Behavioural changes
- Frequent or persistent seizures.
What causes brain tumours?
The exact cause of brain tumours is not known but it is believed that these are a result of abnormal mutations in the DNA of the brain cells that compel them to grow and multiply rapidly in an uncontrolled manner. The unhealthy cells continue to live even as the healthy cells die and start replacing them.
Factors that increase the risks of brain tumour
Various factors that can elevate the risks of developing brain tumour include:
- Exposure to high-intensity ionizing radiations
- Family history of brain tumour
- Advanced age
- Excessive smoking
- Exposure to infections, viruses, and allergens
State of the art diagnostic services available at Vimhans Nayati Super Speciality Hospital
Some of the cutting-edge technology offered at Vimhans Nayati for the diagnosis, evaluation and assessment of brain tumours include:
- Clinical / physical examination to assess the patient’s current health conditions
- Imaging tests like Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan of brain to detect any abnormality or lump as well as to evaluate the tumour for determining a proper treatment plan.
- CT (Computerised Tomography) scan of brain and PET CT (Positron Emission Tomography) scan for determining the primary site of origin of secondary tumours that have spread to the brain.
- Biopsy that involves the collection of tissue samples to be tested and assessed for the signs of any malignancy.
Treatments offered for the management of brain tumors
Various types of treatment options available at Vimhans Nayati:
- Surgery – The surgical removal of the tumour largely depends upon its accessibility. The aim of the surgery is to remove as much tumour and unhealthy cells as possible. In some cases, the tumour is small and can be easily separated from the surrounding tissues, while in others, only a portion of it may be removed. Surgical removal of the tumour proves to be quite effective in relieving the symptoms
- Radiation therapy – High-intensity radiations are used to target and kill unhealthy cells as well as to reduce the size of the tumour. Doctors may use radiation therapy to slow or stop the growth of a brain tumor. It is typically given after surgery and possibly along with chemotherapy. The therapy can be given externally using special machines to target the beams of radiation over the affected area or internally by placing certain radioactive material inside your body. The radiations so generated not only kill the existing unhealthy cells but also prevent the growth of new ones.
- Radiosurgery – It is an advanced technique that uses multiple radiation beams to destroy the tumour cells in very small areas which are not usually easily accessible. Radiosurgery targets only the tumour, excluding nearby healthy tissue. The treatment is usually referred to patients whose tumour cannot be removed via the surgery.
- Chemotherapy – It involves the use of special drugs which can be given orally or intravenously to kill the tumour cells and curtail the growth and multiplication of new ones. Chemotherapy usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time.